Incidence and Mortality of Renal Cell Carcinoma after Kidney Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis

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BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after kidney transplantation (KTx) remain unclear. This study's aims were (1) to investigate the pooled incidence/incidence trends, and (2) to assess the mortality/mortality trends in KTx patients with RCC. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception through October 2018. Studies that reported the incidence or mortality of RCC among kidney transplant recipients were included. The pooled incidence and 95% CI were calculated using a random-effect model. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO; no. CRD42018108994. RESULTS: A total of 22 observational studies with a total of 320,190 KTx patients were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated incidence of RCC after KTx was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8%, = 93%). While the pooled estimated incidence of de novo RCC in the native kidney was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6-0.9%, = 88%), the pooled estimated incidence of RCC in the allograft kidney was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4%, = 64%). The pooled estimated mortality rate in KTx recipients with RCC was 15.0% (95% CI: 7.4-28.1%, = 80%) at a mean follow-up time of 42 months after RCC diagnosis. While meta-regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between year of study and incidence of de novo RCC post-KTx (slopes = -0.05, = 0.01), there were no significant correlations between the year of study and mortality of patients with RCC ( = 0.50). Egger's regression asymmetry test was performed and showed no publication bias in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The overall estimated incidence of RCC after KTX was 0.7%. Although there has been a potential decrease in the incidence of RCC post-KTx, mortality in KTx patients with RCC has not decreased over time.