Degree Name

EdD (Doctor of Education)


Educational Leadership

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Pamela Scott

Committee Members

Virginia Foley, Don Good


The purpose of this ex-post facto quantitative study was to compare English Language Arts (ELA) and math Tennessee Compressive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores of students in grades four through eight who attended school virtually or in-person during the 2020-2021 school year. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the school district in this study allowed parents to choose to send their children to traditional in-person classes or attend school virtually. In-person and virtual students engaged synchronous classroom instruction through Google Meets. All virtual students were instructed by the teachers they would have had if their parents had chosen to send them for in-person learning. In-person students who contracted the virus or were put in quarantine for suspicion of being in contact with the virus, participated virtually while they were quarantined.

This study was conducted to compare ELA and math and TCAP scores of students who attended virtually and in-person. Secondary data were acquired from the school district and scores were analyzed according to their grade level (4th-6th), number of days attended virtually (less than 9, 9-17, 18 or more), and performance level (1st-10th, 11th-25th, 26th-74th, 75th-89th, and 90th-99th percentile) according to fall 2020 aimswebPlus ELA and math benchmark scores. A series of two-way ANOVAs were analyzed using SPSS software. Four research questions and twelve null hypotheses were used to guide this research. There were no significant differences between ELA or math TCAP scores and number of days a student attended virtually. There was at least one significant difference between ELA and math TCAP scores among performance levels with students in higher performance levels tending to score higher than students in lower performance levels. There were no significant interactions between the number of days attended virtually and performance level.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.