Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)


Early Childhood Education

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Dr. Pamela Evanshen

Committee Members

Dr. Carol Trivette, Dr. Amy Malkus


This mixed-methods study explores childhood trauma with a primary focus on the beliefs and attitudes of elementary school administrators in their ability to offer trauma-informed leadership and assist their teachers in trauma-informed care (TIC) and education. Participants at various stages of their careers were recruited from elementary schools across 10 U.S. states (N = 240). Employing an explanatory sequential mixed method design, Phase I assessed school administrators’ attitudes using the attitudes related to trauma-informed care scale (ARTIC-45) (see Appendix A). Phase II employed semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data to explain further and clarify the quantitative results. Findings suggest that elementary school administrators have positive attitudes related to trauma-informed care. Findings also suggest years of administrative experience shows a negative statistically significant relationship while the number of TIC training hours shows a positive statistically significant relationship to attitudes related to trauma-informed care. Analysis also suggests no statistically significant relationship between years of teaching experience and attitudes related to trauma-informed care. A closer examination of the ARTIC – 45 subscales indicate elementary school administrators have negative personal support attitudes toward TIC implementation and negative feelings about the systemwide support they receive from colleagues, supervisors, and administration to implement TIC.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.