Degree Name

EdD (Doctor of Education)


Educational Leadership

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Floyd Edwards

Committee Members

Charles Burkett, J. Howard Bowers, Robert Shepard, George Johnson


The problem of this study was to determine if there were differences in principals' supervisory emphases and practices in school systems where the superintendent is appointed and in school systems where the superintendent is elected by popular vote. A total of three hundred principals was surveyed using a Supervisory Practices Inventory developed by Albert and Judith Canfield. The principals responded to questions about supervisory emphasis and practices. The supervisory emphases areas were people, tasks or results, paralleling those developed by Peter Drucker and George Odiorne. The other area of response was in supervisory practices. Three methods were measured by the inventory: individual principal's initiation, group participation and supervisory initiation. These concepts related to Rensis Likert's model of decision-making and to that of Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago. No significant differences were found in any of the areas studied when comparing principals' supervisory emphases and practices in elected districts with those in the appointed districts. In comparing the two political environments it was found that principals showed no significant differences in either supervisory emphases or practices. Recommendations for future research were given.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.