Degree Name

DrPH (Doctor of Public Health)


Public Health

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Nathan Hale

Committee Members

Kate Beatty, Michael Stoots


Interventions that promote alternative income generation (AIG) to address social determinants of health are associated with increased household income and improved health outcomes. Organizations have used beekeeping to address poverty and other development goals with mixed outcomes. Beekeeping presents a viable option to promote AIG. Organizations increase their risk of failing to achieve positive outcomes when beekeeping interventions are inadequate. This project aims to develop an organizational assessment tool that measures organizational position in relation to evidence-based factors for income generation and improved quality of life among global beekeepers. The assessment is organized into seven domains that correspond with PRECEDE-PROCEED and may be a useful iterative diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring tool. The instrument was developed through a literature review and adapted to PRECEDE-PROCEED to include organizational, ecological, and evaluation factors. The instrument was pretested among content experts and revised before being administered to BEECause Gambia (BCG). BEECause’s mission is to reduce poverty and promote pollinator and honeybee populations. The assessment results were analyzed to propose recommendations to BCG to consider in future strategic planning processes.

The pretest included a survey and cognitive interviews to identify and revise problematic statements. Pretest survey statements were evaluated using a five-point Likert scale. Scores £ 3 directly informed the cognitive interview protocol, which allowed respondents to explicate their feedback and concerns. Interview results were analyzed for trends between respondents and corroborated against evidence-based factors. Statements were revised to consider optimal domain alignment, content validity, and meaningfulness. The revised survey included seven domains, 49 statements and one open-ended response. BEECause’s overall assessment score was 4.1. By domain their scores were 4.1 in design, 4.1 in implementation, 4.2 in predisposing factors, 3.1 in enabling factors, 3.8 in reinforcing factors, 4.2 in impact, and 5.0 in outcomes. Domain and statement scores underwent SWOT analysis. Scores ³ 4 were considered strengths. Scores < 4 were considered weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The assessment resulted in three recommendations to BCG including 1) build financial security, 2) build stakeholder confidence, and 3) address enabling and reinforcing factors. This project may serve as a model for public health efforts in AIG.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.