Degree Name

EdD (Doctor of Education)


Educational Leadership

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Pam Scott

Committee Members

William Flora, Virginia Foley, Richard Griffin


The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) instructors at the secondary level as they adapted to teaching in a virtual environment during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Although the literature indicated that the delivery method for the content and curriculum aligned to Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps was best suited for face-to-face instruction, no evidence existed to indicate cadet overall success based on the implementation by virtual delivery, using one or multiple online platforms. The objective of each JROTC Program is to ensure that cadets successfully complete the program with advanced skill sets in leadership. Leadership skills are most often taught in a traditional environment wherein instructors and cadets learn in real-world and face-to-face environments.

This study was a phenomenological qualitative study selected to examine the experiences of JROTC instructors who taught portions of their curriculum utilizing a virtual platform during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Data collection strategies included semi-structured, one-on-one interviews conducted via a virtual platform with JROTC instructors who taught the JROTC curriculum utilizing a virtual delivery instruction model. The results revealed that JROTC instructors perceived that virtual instruction of their curriculum did not produce an impact on leadership development of cadets as it would have had cadets been instructed in a face-to-face environment. The results reveal how cadets missed out on the development of valuable leadership skills by participating in virtual instruction and instructors perceived themselves to be less effective to ineffective as virtual instructors of their curriculum. The results yielded five themes: (a) virtual delivery model of instruction does not permit instructors to teach certain concepts of the JROTC curriculum adequately; (b) the importance of a face-to-face delivery model of instruction connects to the growth of a JROTC cadet in leadership development; (c) an overall lack of instructor preparation for using virtual instruction, but military training prepared them to be adaptive; (d) instructor perception of being ineffective in delivering instruction in a virtual environment; and (e) a new-found comfort in delivering overall instruction in both a virtual and face-to-face environment.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.