Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Eileen G. Ernenwein

Committee Members

Ingrid Luffman, Michael Whitelaw


Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is limited by depth penetration and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), impacting the ability to resolve subsurface features. Stacking, a process of averaging multiple scans in the same location, improves SNR. Digital antennas are capable of stacking at much higher rates than analog antennas. Four sites were examined using a GSSI SIR-4000 GPR unit with a 400 MHz analog antenna and a 350 MHz digital “hyperstacking” (350 HS) antenna. Sites represent various soil conditions, with known features. Data were compared qualitatively and quantitatively for differences in antenna outputs. Visual inspection of radargrams indicate a reduction in noise in the 350 HS data compared to the 400 MHz data. Quantitative assessments identified significant differences in standard deviation of radar reflection amplitude occurring at depth with both antennas and a reduction in noise and marginal increases in depth of penetration in low-loss conditions with the 350 MHz HS antenna.

Document Type

Thesis - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.