Degree Name

MA (Master of Arts)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Andrea D. Clements

Committee Members

Matthew T. McBee, Jon R. Webb


Relationships between spirituality and health outcomes are well supported in research; however, measurement of spirituality often reflects a Judeo-Christian framework and is predominantly theocentric, neglecting the increasing religious pluralism and non-traditional expressions of spirituality in the United States. A new measure of spirituality was based on a conceptualization of nontheistic spirituality that is understood to be a relatively stable motivational process entailing a search for sacred connection, with “sacred” being defined by individual perceptions and not necessitating divine association. Item development for the current instrument included an initial pool of 65 items and two phases of revision and content validation. The resulting 45-item pool was examined for content validity via two review phases in which expert reviewers rated quality of item form and item congruence with the present spirituality conceptualization. This research addresses current measurement limitations and provides a foundation for continued revision and validation of a nontheistic-based spirituality measure.

Document Type

Thesis - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.