Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Florence Weierbach

Committee Members

Patricia Hayes, Lee Glenn, Carol Kostovich


Introduction: Nursing presence occurs when nurses expend themselves on the behalf of a unique patient. This phenomenon requires further research to develop instruments. The Presence of Nursing Scale (PONS) measures the patient’s perspective (Kostovich, 2012). Psychometric testing of PONS-Revised using exploratory factor analysis is warranted to further develop a reliable and valid measure of nursing presence. Contextual workplace variables need exploration in inpatient settings for correlation with nursing presence.

Method(s): A convenience sample of 122 adult inpatients from ten acute-care nursing units in a Southeastern Magnet hospital were surveyed to conduct the first psychometric testing of this revised instrument using exploratory factor analyses. Seven research questions evaluated potential correlations between the PONS-R, patient satisfaction using nurse-sensitive measures of HCAHPS, nursing unit-specific workforce factors and patient demographic factors.

Results: PONS-R demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (r = .974), test-retest reliability (statistically significant at the .01 level) and divergent validity (p=.002). PONS-R compared to nurse HCAHPS measures was statistically significant at the .01 level, (r = .736). EFA revealed one factor (eigenvalues over 1), with a weak secondary factor centered on intimacy factors suggesting addition of items and repeated study with a larger sample size to further psychometrically develop the instrument. Unexpected negative correlations were found with unit-workforce factors including average RN experience level (r= -.185, significant at the .05 level), and average RN age (r = - .218). An unexpected positive correlation was found - percentage of Associate degree nurses (r = .269, statistically significant at the .05 level. The Triangle region was correlated with a higher PONS-R score (p = .038; n=4), otherwise no statistically significant correlations were found for PONS-R and patient demographics nor patient-specific variables such as estimated number of RN providing care, nor length of stay on the unit.

Discussion & Conclusions: Further psychometric testing is indicated with larger samples and perhaps with the inclusion of intimacy factor items. Additional correlational studies focused on other patient quality outcomes measures with expansion of nurse demographics is indicated to explore for confounding variables.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.