Degree Name

EdD (Doctor of Education)


Educational Leadership

Date of Award

May 1994


This study examined the level of acceptance of marketing by colleges and universities in the United States. It was based upon the "Four Stage Model Reflecting the Acceptance of Marketing in Higher Education Institutions" developed by Simmons and Laczniak (1992). The primary purposes of this study were to validate the model and to identify the operational level of marketing acceptance at colleges and universities. Secondary purposes were to determine if the level of acceptance differed according to source of control/affiliation (public v. private), highest level of degree awarded (associate, baccalaureate, master's, doctors), regional location, urban location, and institutional size. Variables were measured through a survey instrument developed by the researcher. A pilot test was conducted for reliability and validity testing of the instrument. It was then sent to a random sample of institutions which was chosen from the population of all nonproprietary colleges and universities in the United States. Responses from 243 institutions were used for data analysis. Major findings include: (1) stage completion was associated with the source of control (public v. private), a greater percentage of private institutions have completed each stage; (2) source of control/affiliation should be controlled for when comparing marketing of institutions; (3) most colleges have completed Stage One (marketing as promotion), with fewer than half completing Stage Two (marketing as market research), and about a quarter completing Stages Three (marketing as enrollment management), and Four (strategic marketing management); (4) there were no differences in stage scores based on the highest level of degree awarded, regional location, urban location, and institutional size when controlling for the source of control/affiliation; (5) the Four Stage Model has some validity, but more research is needed, particularly regarding the latter stages. Several recommendations were made. They primarily focus on the model, sampling and measurement, and future research needed on marketing acceptance.

Document Type

Dissertation - unrestricted