Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Ismail O. Kady

Committee Members

Marina Roginskaya, Abbas G. Shilabin


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs photosensitizing drugs for treating cancer. Once introduced into the body and localized in tumor cells, these photosensitizers are irradiated with light to produce active singlet oxygen radicals which kill cancer cells. The current drugs used in PDT have low quantum yield and always require a high energy radiation (normally laser). There is always a need for more effective drugs that have a high quantum yield and can be activated by visible light, in order to eliminate side effects caused by laser radiations.

In this work we synthesized derivatives of phenothiazine and phenothiazinium chromophores from the commercially available phenothiazine (1). These derivatives include: 3,7-dibromophenothiazinium perbromide (2), N-acetyl phenothiazine (5), N-acetyl-3,7-dibromophenothiazine (6), 3,7-dinitrophenothiazine (10), N-acetyl-3,7-dinitrophenothiazine (11), N-acetyl-3,7-diaminophenothiazine (12), thionine chloride (15) and 3,7-phenothiaziniumdinitrile (14). Synthesis of 3,7-phenothiazinium dicarboxylic acid was attempted using 1 and 15 as starting materials by exploring various synthetic routes for carboxylic acids.

Document Type

Thesis - unrestricted


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Chemistry Commons