Degree Name

MA (Master of Arts)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Dr. William Douglas Burgess, Jr.

Committee Members

Dr. Henry J. Antkiewicz, Dr. John M. Rankin


The purpose to this thesis is to demonstrate the activity of the Viking presence, in North America. The research focuses on the use of stones, carved with runic inscriptions that have been discovered in Oklahoma, Maine, Rhode Island and Minnesota. The thesis discusses orthographic traits found in the inscriptions and gives evidence that links their primary use to fourteenth century Gotland. Also connecting the stones to Gotland, is the presence of an unusual rune dubbed the Hooked X. This single rune has been the center of controversy since it was first discovered in Minnesota, 1898. Since that time, it has been discovered in connection with two of the other North American Rune Stones, Christopher Columbus and the Cistercian -Templars of Gotland. As of this year (2015), more of the Hooked X symbology has been discovered in Templar churches in Scotland and Portugal.

Document Type

Thesis - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.