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Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)


Sport Physiology and Performance

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Kimitake Sato

Committee Members

Michael H. Stone, William A. Sands, Angus Burnett


The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the existence of force production and strength symmetry while concentrating on its role with performance. Specifically, in this dissertation I sought to determine if differences in symmetry exist between male and female athletes as well as between athletes of different strength levels. Various symmetry assessments were used and the amount of carryover between tests was also evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between asymmetry magnitude and various aspects of jump performance was also assessed.

The results showed that female athletes were more asymmetrical than their male counterparts for most assessments. Interestingly, weaker athletes regardless of gender were more asymmetrical than stronger athletes for all assessments. Symmetry characteristics appeared to carryover between all tests and conditions with the exception of the bilateral strength assessment. When separated by strength level, good carryover of explosive strength symmetry characteristics was noted. A trend of negative relationships was noted between jump performance and kinetic asymmetry, measured during jumps and weight distribution. Isometric mid-thigh pull force production asymmetry did not relate to jump performance as it had previously. Kinetic asymmetry was shown to influence the direction of center of mass displacement (COMd). Specifically, asymmetrical rate of force development showed the most ability to differentiate between values of COMd in the mediolateral direction.

The finding that female athletes are more likely to produce force asymmetrically may indicate that they are more susceptible to the performance detriments that accompany force production asymmetry. This may also indicate that female athletes are more susceptible to injury if force asymmetry is an injury predictor. However, differences in asymmetry magnitude between the sexes may be due to differences in strength level between the sexes in the current study, as weaker athletes were shown to be more asymmetrical than their stronger counterparts. Thus, it may be inadequate strength level that is a risk factor to performance detriments and possible injury. It also appears that force production asymmetry can both alter and hinder optimal jump performance. In order to optimize performance and possibly reduce injury risk, it is recommended that weaker athletes focus on bilateral strengthening exercises.

Document Type

Dissertation - restricted


Copyright by the authors.