Degree Name

DrPH (Doctor of Public Health)

Program

Public Health

Date of Award

5-2017

Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Katie Baker

Committee Members

Joel J. Hillhouse, Megan Quinn

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the U.S., where one HPV-related cancer is diagnosed every 20 minutes. The most common HPV-related cancer is cervical cancer, with an estimated incidence of 12,000 cases annually, a third of which lead to death. Cervical cancer disparately affects women of ethnic minority groups and geographically isolated regions, such as Appalachia. Tennessee ranks third highest in cervical cancer incidence in the country. Many cases of cervical cancer could be prevented through vaccination against HPV, however, vaccination rates for females in Tennessee are among the lowest in the country. This mixed-methods study included an in-depth exploration of the factors that influence HPV vaccine acceptance in Appalachian Tennessee.

Healthcare providers, mothers of adolescent girls, and college-aged women were recruited to participate in the study. From October 2016 to January 2017, interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (n=12), focus groups were conducted with mothers (n=13), and a survey was administered to college women (n=479). Interview and focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a thematic framework. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive tests, comparison of means, and regression analyses.

The predominant barriers to vaccine acceptance identified in the study were: cost and novelty of the vaccine, vaccine safety, lack of school-entry requirement, and the implication of vaccine acceptance on adolescents’ sexual activity. Most negative perceptions towards the vaccine appeared to be propagated by the sociocultural influence on sex and reproductive health communication within the community. Perceived benefits for cancer prevention and receipt of strong and personal provider recommendations facilitated vaccine acceptance. Additionally, college students who reported vaccine acceptance reported discussing sexual health topics with their mothers more often than those who had not been vaccinated.

The findings from this study provide foundational insights about the facilitators and barriers of HPV vaccine acceptance in Appalachian Tennessee. Identifying and understanding these factors is crucial to improving HPV vaccination rates and essential to maximizing the primary benefit of the vaccine in addressing the existing cervical cancer disparity in the region.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Copyright

Copyright by the authors.