End-Stage Renal Disease and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding—a Propensity-Matched Analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample

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Aims: We aim to determine the influence of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) on mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay and resource utilisation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Material and Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database (2016 &2017) was used for data analysis using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes to identify the patients with the principal diagnosis of ESRD and LGIB. We assessed the all-cause in-hospital mortality, morbidity, predictors of mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and total costs between propensity-matched groups of ESRD patients with LGIB versus ESRD patients. Results: We identified 2 187 954 ESRD patients, of whom 242 075 has LGIB, and 1 945 879 were ESRD patients. The in-hospital mortality was higher in ESRD with LGIB (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-2.2; P =.00). ESRD with LGIB has higher odds of mechanical ventilation (OR 1.4, 95% CI 6.4-16.4; P =.00), and shock requiring vasopressor (OR 1.2, 95% CI 4.9-5.4; P =.002). Advanced age (OR 1.02 CI 1.02-1.03 P =.00), anaemia (OR 1.04 CI 1.59-1.91 P =.006), acute coronary syndrome (OR 1.8 CI 1.6-2.1, P =.00), acute respiratory failure (OR 1.29 CI 2.0-2.6, P =.00), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.9, CI 3.5-4.4, P =.00) and sepsis (OR 1.5, CI 4.1-5.08, P =.00) were identified as predictors of mortality in ESRD with LGIB. Mean LOS (10.8 ± 14.9 vs 6.3 ± 8.5, P <.01) and mean total charges (37 054 $ vs 18 080 $, P <.01) were also higher. Conclusions: In this propensity-matched analysis, ESRD with LGIB was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality, mechanical ventilation and shock requiring vasopressor. Mean LOS and resource utilisation were also higher.