Pyrosequencing Analysis of irs1 Methylation Levels in Schizophrenia With Tardive Dyskinesia

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Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious side effect of certain antipsychotic medications that are used to treat schizophrenia (SCZ) and other mental illnesses. The methylation status of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene is reportedly associated with SCZ; however, no study, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has focused on the quantitative DNA methylation levels of the IRS1 gene using pyrosequencing in SCZ with or without TD. The present study aimed to quantify DNA methylation levels of 4 CpG sites in the IRS1 gene using a Chinese sample including SCZ patients with TD and without TD (NTD) and healthy controls (HCs). The general linear model (GLM) was used to detect DNA methylation levels among the 3 proposed groups (TD vs. NTD vs. HC). Mean DNA methylation levels of 4 CpG sites demonstrated normal distribution. Pearson's correlation analysis did not reveal any significant correlations between the DNA methylation levels of the 4 CpG sites and the severity of SCZ. GLM revealed significant differences between the 3 groups for CpG site 1 and the average of the 4 CpG sites (P=0.0001 and P=0.0126, respectively). Furthermore, the TD, NTD and TD + NTD groups demonstrated lower methylation levels in CpG site 1 (P=0.0003, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) and the average of 4 CpG sites (P=0.0176, P=0.0063 and P=0.003, respectively) compared with the HC group. The results revealed that both NTD and TD patients had significantly decreased DNA methylation levels compared with healthy controls, which indicated a significant association between the DNA methylation levels of the IRS1 gene with SCZ and TD.