A normal pregnancy consumes 500–800 mg of iron from the mother. Premenopausal women have a high incidence of marginal iron stores or iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, particularly in the less developed world. Although pregnancy is associated with a “physiologic” anemia largely related to maternal volume expansion; it is paradoxically associated with an increase in erythrocyte production and erythrocyte mass/kg. ID is a limiting factor for this erythrocyte mass expansion and can contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review summarizes erythrocyte and iron balance observed in pregnancy; its implications and impact on mother and child; and provides an overview of approaches to the recognition of ID in pregnancy and its management, including clinically relevant questions for further investigation.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Means, Robert T.. 2020. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia: Implications and Impact in Pregnancy, Fetal Development, and Early Childhood Parameters. Nutrients. Vol.12(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020447 PMID: 32053933