Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Means and Medians

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In studies where the response variable is measured on a ratio scale, a ratio of means or medians provides a standardized measure of effect size that is an alternative to the popular standardized mean difference. Confidence intervals for ratios of population means and medians in independent-samples designs and paired-samples designs are proposed as supplements to the independent-samples t test and paired-samples t test. The performance of the proposed confidence intervals are evaluated in a simulation study. The proposed confidence interval methods are extended to the case of a 2 × m factorial design that includes propensity score stratification and meta-analysis as special cases. R functions that implement the recommended confidence intervals are provided in the Supplemental Material file, available in the online version of this article, and are illustrated with several examples.