Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database

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Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes in MI. However, outcomes of PCI in AF patients presenting with MI remains largely unknown. Methods: We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to calculate the age adjusted mortality rate for PCI in AF patients presenting with MI between 2002 and 2011, in adults over 40 years of age. This was then compared to the mortality rate for PCI in non-AF patients with MI. Specific ICD-9-CM codes were used to identify patients and outcomes. Results: Of 3,226,405 PCIs done during the study period, 472,609 (14.6%) PCIs were done on AF patients of which 137,870 PCIs were for MI. About 60% of these patients were male. Patients with AF were older (71.3 ± 10.6 years). Overall the number of PCIs shows a declining trend from 2002 to 2011, but for MI patients the number of PCIs appears stable over the years. The age adjusted in-hospital mortality following PCI in MI was significantly higher in AF group compared to the non-AF group (190.24 ± 17.21vs 109.08 ± 5.89 per 100,000; P < 0.01). This trend was seen during the entire study period. Conclusions: AF is prevalent in MI patients undergoing PCI. AF is associated with increased mortality following PCI for acute MI. AF is not a benign arrhythmia in MI patients and close attention is warranted in these patients to improve mortality.