Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidities and Prognosis in Patients With Heart Failure With Mid-Range Ejection Fraction

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Background: Patients with left ventricular ejection fractions between 40% and 49% either discovered de novo, having declined from ≥50%, or improved from <40% have been described as heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Though clinical signs and symptoms are similar to other phenotypes, possible prognostic differences and therapeutic responses reinforce the need for further understanding of patients’ characteristics especially in a rural community based population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics, comorbidities and prognosis of a rural patient population with HFmrEF. Materials and Methods: We queried the electronic medical record from a community based university practice for all patients with a HF diagnosis. We included only those patients with >3 months follow-up and interpretable Doppler echocardiograms. We recorded demographic, Doppler-echo, and outcome variables (up to 2,083 days). Results: There were 633 HF patients: 42.4% with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, EF ≥50%), 36.4% with HFmrEF, and 21.0% with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, EF <40%). HFmrEF patients were older, had greater coronary disease prevalence, lower systolic blood pressure, elevated brain natriuretic peptide, lower hemoglobin, and higher creatinine than HFpEF. All-cause mortality was intermediate between HFrEF and HFpEF but was not significantly different. Landmark analysis revealed a trend toward greater second readmission in HFmrEF as compared to HFpEF (hazard ratio: 1.43 [0.96-2.14],P = 0.0767). Conclusions: Rural patients with HFmrEF without an ambulatory HF clinic represent a higher percentage of HF patients than previously reported with greater coronary disease prevalence with comparable readmission rates and nonsignificantly different all-cause mortality.