Concurrent Gaming Disorder/Internet Gaming Disorder and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Dependency in Emerging Adults

Document Type


Publication Date



A growing proportion of young adults report regularly playing video games and using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Although video gaming is often normative and adaptive, excessive gaming is associated with adverse health outcomes and dependency, as seen in gaming disorder/internet gaming disorder (GD/IGD). Possible additive detrimental effects of ENDS use on the physical outcomes of GD/IGD lend particular concern to these concurrent behaviors. The present study explored group differences in concurrent ENDS and GD/IGD dependency by demographic factors, including age, sex, gender, sexual orientation, racial identity, relationship status, and year in school. The interaction effect of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the association between ENDS dependency and GD/IGD was also examined. Lastly, group differences in ADHD symptoms for individuals who endorse (1) neither GD/IGD nor ENDS dependency, (2) either GD/IGD or ENDS dependency, or (3) both GD/IGD and ENDS dependency were explored. Data were collected in a large, multi-university sample of college students (N = 1,054). Higher symptoms of GD/IGD were positively associated with greater symptoms of ENDS dependency. Men and individuals with significant symptoms of ADHD were at an increased risk of concurrent GD/IGD and ENDS dependency. These results may be used to identify demographic and psychological associations linked to these comorbidities, ultimately informing future prevention strategies.