KCl Stimulation Increases Norepinephrine Transporter Function in PC12 Cells

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The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [ H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [ H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca . Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [ H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [ H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [ H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca -activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [ H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [ H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [ H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca , different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.