Associations of Lifestyle Factors (Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, Diet and Physical Activity) With Type 2 Diabetes among American Adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2014

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Over the long term, unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine associations between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet) and T2D in American adults (aged ≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample.


Data for 12 987 American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2014 were evaluated. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the four lifestyle factors and T2D after adjusting for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence trends for T2D were examined using Cochran–Armitage tests.


There was a significant increasing prevalence trend for T2D among American adults. Smokers and individuals consuming >12 alcoholic drinks in the past year were less likely to report having T2D than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–0.48) and those consuming


All four lifestyle factors were significantly associated with T2D among American adults. The findings of the present study provide useful information for healthcare providers that may help them promote specific lifestyle modifications.