Total Domination Subdivision Numbers of Trees

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A set S of vertices in a graph G is a total dominating set of G if every vertex is adjacent to a vertex in S. The total domination number yγ t (G) is the minimum cardinality of a total dominating set of G. The total domination subdivision number sdγt (G) of a graph G is the minimum number of edges that must be subdivided (where each edge in G can be subdivided at most once) in order to increase the total domination number. Haynes et al. (J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. 44 (2003) 115) showed that for any tree T of order at least 3, 1 ≤sdγt (T)≤3. In this paper, we give a constructive characterization of trees whose total domination subdivision number is 3.