Redox Regulation of Ischemic Preconditioning Is Mediated by the Differential Activation of Caveolins and Their Association With ENOS and GLUT-4

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) enhance myocardial injury, but brief periods of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion [ischemic preconditioning (IP)] induce cardioprotection. Ischemia is reported to stimulate glucose uptake through the translocation of GLUT-4 from the intracellular vesicles to the sarcolemma. In the present study we demonstrated involvement of ROS in IP-mediated GLUT-4 translocation along with increased expression of caveolin (Cav)-3, phospho (p)-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), p-Akt, and decreased expression of Cav-1. The rats were divided into the following groups: 1) control sham, 2) N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, free radical scavenger) sham (NS), 3) I/R, 4) IP + I/R (IP), and 5) NAC + IP (IPN). IP was performed by four cycles of 4 min of ischemia and 4 min of reperfusion followed by 30 min of ischemia and 3, 24, 48 h of reperfusion, depending on the protocol. Increased mRNA expression of GLUT-4 and Cav-3 was observed after 3 h of reperfusion in the IP group compared with other groups. IP increased expression of GLUT-4, Cav-3, and p-AKT and p-eNOS compared with I/R. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated decreased association of Cav-1/eNOS in the IP group compared with the I/R group. Significant GLUT-4 and Cav-3 association was also observed in the IP group. This association was disrupted when NAC was used in conjunction with IP. It clearly documents a significant role of ROS signaling in Akt/eNOS/Cav-3-mediated GLUT-4 translocation and association in IP myocardium. In conclusion, we demonstrated a novel redox mechanism in IP-induced eNOS and GLUT-4 translocation and the role of caveolar paradox in making the heart euglycemic during the process of ischemia, leading to myocardial protection in a clinically relevant rat ischemic model.