Noninvasive Correlates of Subdural Grid Electrographic Outcome

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Purpose: To investigate reasons for patients not proceeding to resective epilepsy surgery after subdural grid evaluation (SDE). To correlate noninvasive investigation results with invasive EEG observations in a set of patients with nonlesional brain MRIs. Methods: Retrospective study of adult epilepsy patients undergoing SDE during an 8-year period at Cleveland Clinic. Construction of semiquantitative "scores" and Bayesian predictors summarizing the localizing value and concordance between noninvasive parameters in a subset with nonlesional MRIs. Results: One hundred forty patients underwent SDE, 25 of whom were subsequently denied resective surgery. In 10 of 25, this was caused by a nonlocalizing subdural ictal EEG onset. Eight of 10 such patients were nonlesional on MRI. Among all nonlesional patients (n = 34 of 140), n 1 = 10 of 34 patients had nonlocalizing and n2 = 24 of 34 had localizing, subdural ictal onsets. As groups, n1 and n 2 were statistically disjoint relative to their noninvasive scores. Bayesian measures predictive of focal invasive ictal EEG were highest for complete concordance of noninvasive parameters, decreasing with lesser degrees of concordance. A localizing scalp interictal EEG was a particularly good Bayesian prognosticator. Conclusions: A small but significant proportion of SDE patients are denied subsequent therapeutic resective surgery. This is due to several reasons, including a nonlocalizing intracranial ictal EEG. The majority of such patients have nonlesional MRIs. The noninvasive data may be summarized by a semiquantitative score, as well as Bayesian likelihood ratios, which correlate with subsequent invasive outcome. This approach may find use in the selection and counseling of potential surgical candidates offered SDE.