Formation of a Single Pinhole on Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Nanometer-Sized Gold Electrode and Its Electrochemical Behaviors

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In this paper, a nanometer-sized gold electrode with an effective radius around several tens of nanometers has been modified with a monolayer of alkanethiols. There are pinholes in the monolayer, and the pinholes can be used as very small electrode. Our evaluation shows that it is possible to have only one pinhole on the monolayer covered electrode. The single pinhole electrode has been used to study the electrochemical behaviors of fast and slow electrochemical reactions. Our results show that the electrochemical response of a slow electrochemical reaction is not a Butler-Volmer response if the electrode is small enough.