Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Engagement of the innate immune system and activation of inflammatory responses have been demonstrated to play an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (Barry 1994; Bryant et al. 1998; Frangogiannis 2006; Kubota et al. 1997) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (Torre-Amione et al. 1996). Experimental studies and clinical investigations have shown that I/R significantly increases myocardial inflammatory cytokine expression including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (I-CAM-1) (Barry 1994; Bryant et al. 1998; Frangogiannis 2006; Kubota et al. 1997; Kukielka et al. 1995). These proinflammatory cytokines are directly involved in the progression of myocardial I/R injury, myocardial dysfunction, vascular wall remodeling, and heart failure (Kelly and Smith 1997; Ono et al. 1998). However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms by which the innate immune and inflammatory responses are involved in ischemic heart diseases.
Ha, Tuanzhu; Liu, Li; Kelley, Jim; Williams, David; and Li, Chuanfu. 2013. Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Cardiovascular Diseases: Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions. 123-142. ISBN: 9781439882016,9781439882009