Sleep Duration and Smoking Are Associated With Coronary Heart Disease Among Us Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Gender Differences

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Aims The associations of moderate alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and tobacco smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are not clearly clarified. The aims of the study were to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors, hypertension, obesity, depression and sleep duration with CHD development among patients with T2D, and particularly, to examine the gender differences in risk factors for CHD. Methods A total of 2335 T2D adults were selected from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results The CHD prevalence among patients with T2D was 14.2% (18.1% and 10.4% for males and females, respectively), which increased with age (10.3% and 19.6% for age groups 18–64 and 65+, respectively). After adjusting for other factors, weighted logistic regression analyses showed that CHD among patients with T2D was significantly associated with being male, older age, past smoking, long sleep duration, hypertension, and high cholesterol level. Furthermore, the significant association of older age, past smoking, hypertension and high cholesterol level were observed particularly in males, while the association of long sleep duration with CHD was only observed in females. Hypertension was associated with CHD for both genders. Conclusions Gender, age, past smoking, long sleep duration, hypertension and high cholesterol level were significantly associated with CHD among T2D patients; however, such associations differed by gender. Such gender disparities should be considered in the prevention and treatment of T2D.