The “Great” Controlling Nucleotide Coenzymes

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Nucleotide coenzymes dot the map of metabolic pathways providing energy to drive the reactions of the pathway and play an important role in regulating and controlling energy metabolism through their shared potential energy, which is widely unobserved due to the paradox that the energy in the coenzyme pools cannot be determined from the concentration of the coenzyme couples. The potential energy of the nucleotide couples in the mitochondria or the cytoplasm is expressed in the enzyme reactions in which they take part. The energy in these couples, [NAD+]/[NADH], [NADP+]/[NADPH], [acetyl CoA]/[CoA], and [ATP]/[ADP]x[Pi], regulates energy metabolism. The energy contained in the couples can be altered by suppling energy equivalents in the form of ketones, such as, D-β-hydroxybutyrate to overcome insulin resistance, to restore antioxidants capacity, to form potential treatments for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, to enhance life span, and to increase physiological performance. © 2019 IUBMB Life, 71(5):565–579, 2019.