What Do We Gain From High-rate Digital Stacking?

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Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is limited by the depth of penetration and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which both impact the ability to resolve subsurface features. GPR antennas are known to have limited depth penetration due to the noise and signal attenuated. The noise floor is the depth at which there is no discernable signal (Stec and Susek 2018). SNR is the comparison of desired signal to background noise, understanding that noise is any unwanted signal. Different objects in the environment can transmit frequencies that are recorded in data as background noise; this noise is considered to be external noise. Internal noise is noise which is generated by the internal components of the GPR system. Data processing such as filtering can reduce noise. Noise that occurs at the same frequency as the signal of interest, however, cannot be filtered out without also removing the signal of interest.