An Unusual Cause of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Pearls Regarding Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System

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Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare form of vasculitis. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and often diagnosed post mortem on pathologic evaluation. Cerebral angiography can be suggestive, but biopsy is required. Symptoms can vary from headache to focal cranial nerve deficits. On the more severe spectrum, patients can present with ischemic and vary rarely hemorrhagic stroke. We present in this case report key clinical pearls regarding suspected diagnosis. Younger patients with cortical hemorrhages may have PACNS instead of the more common cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Early suspicion may aid in initiating effective treatment as we highlight in the discussion.