A Comparison of the Cough Profile of Fosinopril and Enalapril in Hypertensive Patients with a History of ACE Inhibitor-Associated Cough

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OBJECTIVE: Cough frequency and severity with fosinopril and enalapril were assessed in hypertensive patients with previous angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-associated cough. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, randomized, 8-week double-blind treatment. PATIENTS: One hundred seventy-nine patients (mild-to-moderate hypertension, nonsmokers, mean age 58 years; 55% females; 72% Caucasian, 6% black, 19% Hispanic) were studied. Patients with other cough etiologies, significant co-morbidity, or confounding medications were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to fosinopril 10 mg (n = 85) or enalapril 5 mg (n = 94) once daily. Dosage could be doubled for blood pressure control after 4 weeks. Outcome measurements: The primary end point was all-cough frequency based on patient daily diary ratings; a cumulative cough frequency score was calculated. Secondary end points included cough severity, nonproductive cough frequency, night awakenings, cough time of day, and spontaneously reported cough. RESULTS: Fosinopril and enalapril demonstrated similar blood pressure control. Significant cough profile differences were observed in favor of fosinopril: all-cough frequency was 40.6 plus minus 3.8 (mean plus minus SE) versus 52.8 plus minus 3.6 (p = 0.02); nonproductive cough frequency was 26.7 plus minus 3.5 versus 40.3 plus minus 3.4 (p less-than-or-equal 0.01); and cough time of day was 49.2 plus minus 5.2 versus 66.0 plus minus 5.0 (p = 0.02), for fosinopril and enalapril, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed all-cough frequency was 33.5 plus minus 6.3 versus 56.6 plus minus 5.3 (p = 0.006) for fosinopril and enalapril, respectively, in patients who previously had cough on one of these two ACEI (predominantly enalapril). Ten (12%) fosinopril and 25 (27%) enelapril patients spontaneously reported cough (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive patients with previous ACEI-associated cough reported less frequent cough with fosinopril compared to enalapril, based on cumulative patient diary scores and spontaneously reported cough. This difference was most apparent in the subgroup of patients who previously experienced cough associated with enalapril therapy. Patients with prior ACEI-associated cough may experience less frequent with fosinopril.