A Rare Case of Sarcoidosis Involving Male Breast Tissue

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Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, inflammatory granulomatous disease that rarely involves breast tissue. The pathophysiology of this chronic granulomatous condition is not well understood but is thought to be multifactorial, involving environmental influences causing an amplified immune response. A key histomorphology feature in sarcoidosis is the presence of non-necrotizing granulomas. In this case, we report a 41-year-old African-American man with a known history of sarcoidosis of the lung who presented with gynecomastia and bilateral breast tenderness with palpable nodules. Subsequent biopsy and microscopic examination of the breast nodules revealed diffuse involvement with non-necrotizing granulomas in both breasts. A final diagnosis of extensive sarcoidosis involving breast tissue was rendered after excluding other causes of non-necrotizing granulomas. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy to remove the breast nodules. This case discusses sarcoidosis involving an unusual site.