A Detailed Review on the Phytochemical Profiles and Anti-Diabetic Mechanisms of Momordica Charantia

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Diabetes mellitus is the most well-known endocrine dilemma suffered by hundreds of million people globally, with an annual mortality of more than one million people. This high mortality rate highlights the need for in-depth study of anti-diabetic agents. This review explores the phytochemical contents and anti-diabetic mechanisms of (cucurbitaceae). Studies show that contains several phytochemicals that have hypoglycemic effects, thus, the plant may be effective in the treatment/management of diabetes mellitus. Also, the biochemical and physiological basis of anti-diabetic actions is explained. exhibits its anti-diabetic effects via the suppression of MAPKs and NF-κβin pancreatic cells, promoting glucose and fatty acids catabolism, stimulating fatty acids absorption, inducing insulin production, ameliorating insulin resistance, activating AMPK pathway, and inhibiting glucose metabolism enzymes (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and glucose-6-phosphatase). Reviewed literature was obtained from credible sources such as PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science.