Degree Name

MA (Master of Arts)


Early Childhood Education

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Amy Malkus

Committee Members

Laurelle Phillips, Rebecca Isbell


Product-producing art activities (PPAA) produce visual products, disregarding developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) and the creative learning experience. Infant programs in Northeast TN were examined to determine if as PPAA levels increased DAP levels decreased, which was unfounded: t (2) = 1.80, n.s. In fact, significant differences were found between programs with high PPAA levels and DAP as indicated by scores on the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Cryer, & Clifford, 1990) sub-scales: Furnishings and Displays, t (2) = 7.59, p < .05; Listening and Talking, t (2) = 6.71, p < .05; and Learning Activities, t (2) = 7.29, p < .05. Caregivers' main reason for including PPAA was: positive sensory experience; main reason for exclusion: infant/teacher relationship is more important.

Document Type

Thesis - unrestricted


Copyright by the authors.