Off-campus ETSU users: To download "Campus Only" theses, please use the following link to log in to our proxy server with your ETSU username and password.

Non-ETSU users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis through interlibrary loan.

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)



Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Darrell J. Moore

Committee Members

David Benner, Karl H. Joplin


Accepted theories of honey bee foraging state that foragers are active at only 1 time of day. It has been shown that a few foragers can be trained to forage at multiple times of day and at many locations. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate the phenomenon of foragers maintaining multiple time-memories.

It was found that in small and large sample populations, a minority of foragers could be trained to 2 or more times and places. Within the hive, the foragers that do not fly to the stations also tend to exhibit a persistent time-memory. Remaining experienced foragers cluster at the dance floor at the approach of a training time and remain dispersed throughout the hive at other times. Because foragers can only be recruited from the dance floor, these foragers that stay behind are also exhibiting a time-memory with respect to the proper training time.

Document Type

Thesis - restricted


Copyright by the authors.