Project Title

Omega-3 Fortification of Marinara Sauce

Authors' Affiliations

Hannah Collie, Department of Rehabilitative Science, College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee Mary Andreae, MS, RD, LDN,Department of Rehabilitative Science, College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee W. Andrew Clark, PhD, RD, LDN, Department of Rehabilitative Science, College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Other - please list

Nutrition Clinical and Rehabilitative Health

Additional Sponsors

William Clark

Type

Oral Competitive

Classification of First Author

Undergraduate Student

Project's Category

Other Healthcare

Abstract Text

Omega-3 Fortification of Marinara Sauce

Hannah Collie, Mary Andreae, MS, RD, LDN, W. Andrew Clark, PhD, RD, LDN, Department of Rehabilitative Science,

College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health

East Tennessee State University,

Johnson City, Tennessee

In westernized culture, there is a deficit of healthy fats in the average person’s diet. This is evidenced by many different conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic inflammatory issues. The “Mediterranean Diet” has been shown as an ideal way to combat these health issues.The diet promotes fish as a protein source and a way to consume essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to location and trends, fish is less often a main component of the western diet.This study investigated ways to fortify a more commonly consumed food in western culture, marinara sauce, with flaxseed oil, walnut oil, and anchovies. These fortified marinara sauces were compared to a commercial sauce, Paul Newman’s Marinara for nutritional content. We hypothesize that adding omega-3 rich ingredients to a base marinara sauce recipe will significantly vary the fatty acid profile and increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids as well as decrease the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio. Sauces were prepared and analyzed for nutrient content using proximate analysis methods. Preparation included cooking and freeze drying the variants. Nutrient content tests performed included: bomb calorimetry, Kjeldahl protein analysis, Soxhlet fat analysis, ash inorganic analysis, FRAP Assay for antioxidant content, and gas chromatography to characterize fatty acid composition. Each variant sauce had a fatty acid profile that was unique. Two of the three variants showed a better omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio than the (control) Paul Newman’s sauce. Samples with the highest to lowest omega-6 to omega-3 ratio were respectively, flaxseed oil, Paul Newman’s commercial sauce, walnut oil, and anchovy. From gas chromatography, omega three fatty acid composition as a percentage of total fatty acids were approximately in the flaxseed oil variant, 21% in the Paul Newman’s sauce, 30% in the walnut oil variant, and 81% in the anchovy variant. Two of three variant sauces, walnut and anchovy, when compared to the commercial Paul Newman's sauce, showed more favorable omega-3 fatty acid content and lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios. Unexpectedly, the flaxseed oil variant had less omega three fatty acids and a higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio than the commercial sauce. In conclusion, simple additions of omega-3 ingredients to marinara sauce can decrease the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the diet.

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Omega-3 Fortification of Marinara Sauce

Omega-3 Fortification of Marinara Sauce

Hannah Collie, Mary Andreae, MS, RD, LDN, W. Andrew Clark, PhD, RD, LDN, Department of Rehabilitative Science,

College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health

East Tennessee State University,

Johnson City, Tennessee

In westernized culture, there is a deficit of healthy fats in the average person’s diet. This is evidenced by many different conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic inflammatory issues. The “Mediterranean Diet” has been shown as an ideal way to combat these health issues.The diet promotes fish as a protein source and a way to consume essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to location and trends, fish is less often a main component of the western diet.This study investigated ways to fortify a more commonly consumed food in western culture, marinara sauce, with flaxseed oil, walnut oil, and anchovies. These fortified marinara sauces were compared to a commercial sauce, Paul Newman’s Marinara for nutritional content. We hypothesize that adding omega-3 rich ingredients to a base marinara sauce recipe will significantly vary the fatty acid profile and increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids as well as decrease the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio. Sauces were prepared and analyzed for nutrient content using proximate analysis methods. Preparation included cooking and freeze drying the variants. Nutrient content tests performed included: bomb calorimetry, Kjeldahl protein analysis, Soxhlet fat analysis, ash inorganic analysis, FRAP Assay for antioxidant content, and gas chromatography to characterize fatty acid composition. Each variant sauce had a fatty acid profile that was unique. Two of the three variants showed a better omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio than the (control) Paul Newman’s sauce. Samples with the highest to lowest omega-6 to omega-3 ratio were respectively, flaxseed oil, Paul Newman’s commercial sauce, walnut oil, and anchovy. From gas chromatography, omega three fatty acid composition as a percentage of total fatty acids were approximately in the flaxseed oil variant, 21% in the Paul Newman’s sauce, 30% in the walnut oil variant, and 81% in the anchovy variant. Two of three variant sauces, walnut and anchovy, when compared to the commercial Paul Newman's sauce, showed more favorable omega-3 fatty acid content and lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios. Unexpectedly, the flaxseed oil variant had less omega three fatty acids and a higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio than the commercial sauce. In conclusion, simple additions of omega-3 ingredients to marinara sauce can decrease the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the diet.

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