Project Title

The Cytotoxic Effects of Novel Flavonoids CT1 and CT3 on Breast Cancer Cells are Independent of the Presence of ER, PR, and HER2 Receptors

Authors' Affiliations

Kendra Lyndsey Hagood, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Keagan Hackworth, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Chukwunyere Umeh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Garret Mudd, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Kristen Michaud, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Morgan Cunningham, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Ruben Torrenegra, Departamento de Ciencias, Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales, Bogota, Colombia Victoria Palau, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Internal Medicine, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy and Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Internal Medicine

Type

Oral Competitive

Classification of First Author

Pharmacy Student

Project's Category

Cancer or Carcinogenesis

Abstract Text

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer found in women across the world, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases occurring in 2020. Additionally, over 684,000 deaths annually are attributed to breast cancer across the globe, making it the most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Further, treatment of breast cancer relies heavily on whether or not the cancer cells express estrogen, progesterone, and HER 2 receptors and this expression profile is often related to how quickly the cells grow and spread. In the United States, breast cancer cells that are hormone receptor positive and HER-2 negative make up about 73% of breast cancer cases, and cells that do not express any receptor and are known as triple negative, make up around 12% of cases (American Cancer Society, 2019). With that being said, CT1 and CT3 are novel compounds that have a cytotoxic effect on cell lines representing up to 85% of all breast cancer subtypes in the United States.

Methods: The leaves of Chromolaena tacotana that contains the flavonoids CT1 and CT3 were dried and placed in a soxhlet extractor using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) to extract the chlorophyll. The flavonoids were extracted using a column chromatography eluted with trichloromethane (CHCl3), a 1:1 dilution of CHCl3:methanol and methanol, followed by isolation and purification of the compounds. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and SKBr3 were treated with CT1 and CT3 at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 µM, followed by incubation for 24 hours. To assess cell viability an MTT assay was conducted by adding a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reagent. The purple-colored formazan crystals were solubilized with acidified isopropanol, then analyzed by spectrophotometry.

Results: CT1 appeared to have the most cytotoxic effects compared to CT3 on MCF7. The opposite effect was observed for SKBr3 with CT3 showing the most effects as compared to CT1. No differential effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 since both CT1 and CT3 showed similar inhibition of cell viability.

Conclusions: The results from the different breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 vary based on how they responded to CT1 and CT3. CT3 was more effective on SKBr3 than CT1. CT1 was more effective on MCF7 than CT3. For MDA-MB-231, both CT1 and CT3 showed similar significant cytotoxic effects. The antiproliferative effects of CT1 and CT3 appear to be concentration dependent on all cells studied. In view of the results from MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cell line, the cytotoxic effect of the flavonoids is not dependent on the presence of estrogen, progesterone, or HER2 receptors on breast cancer cells. Further studies on the mechanism of action are necessary to elucidate the molecular targets of CT1 and CT3.

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The Cytotoxic Effects of Novel Flavonoids CT1 and CT3 on Breast Cancer Cells are Independent of the Presence of ER, PR, and HER2 Receptors

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer found in women across the world, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases occurring in 2020. Additionally, over 684,000 deaths annually are attributed to breast cancer across the globe, making it the most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Further, treatment of breast cancer relies heavily on whether or not the cancer cells express estrogen, progesterone, and HER 2 receptors and this expression profile is often related to how quickly the cells grow and spread. In the United States, breast cancer cells that are hormone receptor positive and HER-2 negative make up about 73% of breast cancer cases, and cells that do not express any receptor and are known as triple negative, make up around 12% of cases (American Cancer Society, 2019). With that being said, CT1 and CT3 are novel compounds that have a cytotoxic effect on cell lines representing up to 85% of all breast cancer subtypes in the United States.

Methods: The leaves of Chromolaena tacotana that contains the flavonoids CT1 and CT3 were dried and placed in a soxhlet extractor using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) to extract the chlorophyll. The flavonoids were extracted using a column chromatography eluted with trichloromethane (CHCl3), a 1:1 dilution of CHCl3:methanol and methanol, followed by isolation and purification of the compounds. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and SKBr3 were treated with CT1 and CT3 at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 µM, followed by incubation for 24 hours. To assess cell viability an MTT assay was conducted by adding a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reagent. The purple-colored formazan crystals were solubilized with acidified isopropanol, then analyzed by spectrophotometry.

Results: CT1 appeared to have the most cytotoxic effects compared to CT3 on MCF7. The opposite effect was observed for SKBr3 with CT3 showing the most effects as compared to CT1. No differential effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 since both CT1 and CT3 showed similar inhibition of cell viability.

Conclusions: The results from the different breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 vary based on how they responded to CT1 and CT3. CT3 was more effective on SKBr3 than CT1. CT1 was more effective on MCF7 than CT3. For MDA-MB-231, both CT1 and CT3 showed similar significant cytotoxic effects. The antiproliferative effects of CT1 and CT3 appear to be concentration dependent on all cells studied. In view of the results from MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cell line, the cytotoxic effect of the flavonoids is not dependent on the presence of estrogen, progesterone, or HER2 receptors on breast cancer cells. Further studies on the mechanism of action are necessary to elucidate the molecular targets of CT1 and CT3.

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