Project Title

A Clinical Differentiation of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) & Kawasaki Disease (KD)

Authors' Affiliations

Andersen Estes, MS III, Quillen Medical College, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. Demetrio Macariola Jr, MD, Pediatric Department, Quillen Medical College, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Pediatrics

Type

Oral Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Student

Project's Category

Infectious Diseases

Abstract Text

INTRODUCTION: With the emergence of the COVID 19 pandemic, a new disease, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), had evolved. Increasing number of children are being reported to have MIS-C in the U.S. & worldwide. In the U.S. there are currently 2617 MISC cases reported. MIS-C & Kawasaki Disease (KD), have almost the same presentation, making clinical differentiation difficult. This study aims at differentiating KD & MIS-C which could assist clinicians to determine which one they could be dealing with in their practices.

METHODS: Clinical features & laboratory values were collected from published studies found by queries on PubMed & other websites. Reported values were selected from published systemic reviews, meta-analyses, & large retrospective chart studies.

RESULTS: In KD, the most prevalent clinical features are fever (100%) & the 5 KD-defining clinical features: oral mucosal changes (96.5%), rash (96%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (89%), extremity changes (75.6%), and cervical lymphadenopathy (62.7%). MIS-C also presents with fever (100%) but has lower prevalence of oral mucosal changes (23%), rash (38.2%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (44.0%), extremity changes (2.5%), & cervical lymphadenopathy (4%). MIS-C leads to higher rates of ventricular dysfunction (39.3%), myocarditis (23%), & shock.

For cardiac biomarkers, MIS-C has elevated troponin I (x6 normal) & Beta Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (x414 normal), while KD has elevations of troponin I (x1.9 normal) & BNP (x15 normal).

MIS-C has higher elevations in ESR, CRP, and D-Dimer at x6, x30, and x40 from the normal values, respectively, while KD has elevations of x2.8, x2.1, x7.3 from the normal values, respectively. MIS-C is associated with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, & anemia in 22% of cases. KD is associated with mild neutrophilia & anemia. KD has thrombocytosis in the subacute phase (x1.46 normal).

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that there are overlaps & differences in clinical and laboratory features. Fever is present in both KD & MIS-C, however the 5 KD defining clinical features of KD are less frequent in MIS-C.

MIS-C induces higher levels of troponin I & BNP, findings that could potentially explain for higher rates of ventricular dysfunction & myocarditis.

MIS-C causes higher elevations in inflammatory markers & D-Dimers compared to KD. Uniquely, thrombocytopenia is commonly present in MISC rather than in KD.

Differentiating KD & MIS-C can be challenging, but by focusing closely on the clinical & laboratory features, clinicians may be able to distinguish between the two &, therefore, deliver the most appropriate care to patients in their practices.

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A Clinical Differentiation of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) & Kawasaki Disease (KD)

INTRODUCTION: With the emergence of the COVID 19 pandemic, a new disease, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), had evolved. Increasing number of children are being reported to have MIS-C in the U.S. & worldwide. In the U.S. there are currently 2617 MISC cases reported. MIS-C & Kawasaki Disease (KD), have almost the same presentation, making clinical differentiation difficult. This study aims at differentiating KD & MIS-C which could assist clinicians to determine which one they could be dealing with in their practices.

METHODS: Clinical features & laboratory values were collected from published studies found by queries on PubMed & other websites. Reported values were selected from published systemic reviews, meta-analyses, & large retrospective chart studies.

RESULTS: In KD, the most prevalent clinical features are fever (100%) & the 5 KD-defining clinical features: oral mucosal changes (96.5%), rash (96%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (89%), extremity changes (75.6%), and cervical lymphadenopathy (62.7%). MIS-C also presents with fever (100%) but has lower prevalence of oral mucosal changes (23%), rash (38.2%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (44.0%), extremity changes (2.5%), & cervical lymphadenopathy (4%). MIS-C leads to higher rates of ventricular dysfunction (39.3%), myocarditis (23%), & shock.

For cardiac biomarkers, MIS-C has elevated troponin I (x6 normal) & Beta Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (x414 normal), while KD has elevations of troponin I (x1.9 normal) & BNP (x15 normal).

MIS-C has higher elevations in ESR, CRP, and D-Dimer at x6, x30, and x40 from the normal values, respectively, while KD has elevations of x2.8, x2.1, x7.3 from the normal values, respectively. MIS-C is associated with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, & anemia in 22% of cases. KD is associated with mild neutrophilia & anemia. KD has thrombocytosis in the subacute phase (x1.46 normal).

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that there are overlaps & differences in clinical and laboratory features. Fever is present in both KD & MIS-C, however the 5 KD defining clinical features of KD are less frequent in MIS-C.

MIS-C induces higher levels of troponin I & BNP, findings that could potentially explain for higher rates of ventricular dysfunction & myocarditis.

MIS-C causes higher elevations in inflammatory markers & D-Dimers compared to KD. Uniquely, thrombocytopenia is commonly present in MISC rather than in KD.

Differentiating KD & MIS-C can be challenging, but by focusing closely on the clinical & laboratory features, clinicians may be able to distinguish between the two &, therefore, deliver the most appropriate care to patients in their practices.

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