Project Title

Innumerable bone lesions: An atypical presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors' Affiliations

Hemendra Mhadgut, Division of Oncology-Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Chandana Kamireddy, Division of Oncology-Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Alok Sinha, Department of Pathology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Sakshi Singal, Division of Oncology-Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN Devapiran Jaishankar, Division of Oncology-Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Internal Medicine

Type

Oral Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Resident or Clinical Fellow

Project's Category

Cell Lines

Abstract Text

Acute myeloid leukemia(AML) is the most common acute leukemia among adults in the United states with approximately 19,940 people being diagnosed of this disease in 2020 and 11,180 deaths. It is a heterogenous group of malignancy characterized by clonal expansion of blast with myeloid lineage in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and/or other tissues.

Our patient is a 79-year-old male who presented to the hospital with reports of sharp, throbbing low back pain for one month, moderately controlled with pain medications. He reported 5 lb. weight loss with decreased appetite over one month but denied other constitutional symptoms. MRI Lumbar spine revealed multiple foci of marrow signal abnormality compatible with extensive metastatic disease. CT chest, abdomen and pelvis did not show any lesions concerning for primary or metastatic malignancy. CBC revealed normal WBC count, platelet count and hemoglobin level (with macrocytosis, MCV 104.7). Initial work up including Vitamin B12 and folic acid level, TSH, SPEP/IFE, serum light chain ratio and quantitative immunoglobulins were within normal limits. Pathology from a CT guided bone biopsy of the L spine lesion was concerning for high grade myeloid neoplasm. Patient had a bone marrow biopsy done at another hospital which was read as most consistent with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with monocytic differentiation, with findings of hypocellular marrow, extensive fibrosis with focal areas of large clusters of immature cells, positive for MPO, CD33, CD43 and CD 56, Ki-67 of 60-80%. Cytogenetics showed an abnormal male karyotype with trisomy 8. FISH was negative for other AML or MDS related abnormalities. Given the above findings of AML and advanced age, patient was started on treatment with hypomethylating agent Decitabine along with BCL-2 inhibitor, Venetoclax. A repeat bone marrow biopsy after two cycles of the above regimen revealed progressive disease with extensive fibrosis and 80-90% blast on a core biopsy sample. Due to poor response to above regimen, lack of effective treatment options in older patients with AML and declining functional status, decision was made to pursue best supportive care.

AML usually presents with symptoms of fevers, fatigue, dyspnea or bleeding. Skeletal lesions are usually associated with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma, or other solid organ malignancies and rare in AML. Extra medullary involvement of AML is known to happen in 2.5%-9% of patients and is termed as Myeloid Sarcoma. Due to the low incidence, prospective study data is limited. This entity is treated similarly to AML, depending on risk stratification by cytogenetics, age and targetable mutations which also govern its prognosis. This case highlights the importance of increased awareness and high index of suspicion among medical providers regarding this atypical presentation of AML since if missed or misdiagnosed could delay treatment and lead to poor outcomes.

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Innumerable bone lesions: An atypical presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia(AML) is the most common acute leukemia among adults in the United states with approximately 19,940 people being diagnosed of this disease in 2020 and 11,180 deaths. It is a heterogenous group of malignancy characterized by clonal expansion of blast with myeloid lineage in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and/or other tissues.

Our patient is a 79-year-old male who presented to the hospital with reports of sharp, throbbing low back pain for one month, moderately controlled with pain medications. He reported 5 lb. weight loss with decreased appetite over one month but denied other constitutional symptoms. MRI Lumbar spine revealed multiple foci of marrow signal abnormality compatible with extensive metastatic disease. CT chest, abdomen and pelvis did not show any lesions concerning for primary or metastatic malignancy. CBC revealed normal WBC count, platelet count and hemoglobin level (with macrocytosis, MCV 104.7). Initial work up including Vitamin B12 and folic acid level, TSH, SPEP/IFE, serum light chain ratio and quantitative immunoglobulins were within normal limits. Pathology from a CT guided bone biopsy of the L spine lesion was concerning for high grade myeloid neoplasm. Patient had a bone marrow biopsy done at another hospital which was read as most consistent with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with monocytic differentiation, with findings of hypocellular marrow, extensive fibrosis with focal areas of large clusters of immature cells, positive for MPO, CD33, CD43 and CD 56, Ki-67 of 60-80%. Cytogenetics showed an abnormal male karyotype with trisomy 8. FISH was negative for other AML or MDS related abnormalities. Given the above findings of AML and advanced age, patient was started on treatment with hypomethylating agent Decitabine along with BCL-2 inhibitor, Venetoclax. A repeat bone marrow biopsy after two cycles of the above regimen revealed progressive disease with extensive fibrosis and 80-90% blast on a core biopsy sample. Due to poor response to above regimen, lack of effective treatment options in older patients with AML and declining functional status, decision was made to pursue best supportive care.

AML usually presents with symptoms of fevers, fatigue, dyspnea or bleeding. Skeletal lesions are usually associated with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma, or other solid organ malignancies and rare in AML. Extra medullary involvement of AML is known to happen in 2.5%-9% of patients and is termed as Myeloid Sarcoma. Due to the low incidence, prospective study data is limited. This entity is treated similarly to AML, depending on risk stratification by cytogenetics, age and targetable mutations which also govern its prognosis. This case highlights the importance of increased awareness and high index of suspicion among medical providers regarding this atypical presentation of AML since if missed or misdiagnosed could delay treatment and lead to poor outcomes.