Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)


Mathematical Sciences

Date of Award


Committee Chair or Co-Chairs

Yared Nigussie

Committee Members

Robert A. Beeler, Robert B. Gardner


Let G be a graph. For kd ≥ 1, a k/d -coloring of G is a coloring c of vertices of G with colors 0, 1, 2, . . ., k - 1, such that d ≤ | c(x) - c(y) | ≤ k - d, whenever xy is an edge of G. We say that the circular chromatic number of G, denoted χc(G), is equal to the smallest k/d where a k/d -coloring exists. In [6], Pan and Zhu have given a function μ(g) that gives an upper bound for the circular-chromatic number for every K4-minor-free graph Gg of odd girth at least g, g ≥ 3. In [7], they have shown that their upper bound in [6] can not be improved by constructing a sequence of graphs approaching μ(g) asymptotically. We prove that for every odd integer g = 2k + 1, there exists a graph GgG/K4 of odd girth g such that χc(Gg) = μ(g) if and only if k is not divisible by 3. In other words, for any odd g, the question of attainability of μ(g) is answered for all g by our results. Furthermore, the proofs [6] and [7] are long and tedious. We give simpler proofs for both of their results.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access


Copyright by the authors.